Juneteenth

Terms for the end of Civil War hostilities began at a courthouse in Virginia in April of 1865, but it didn’t end in Texas until June later that year. Slaves continued to work and personal freedoms were ignored because no one got the word.  No social media, no media of any kind, no newspapers for slaves who of course were not allowed to read (outlawed by the Slave Codes). General Robert E. Lee, commander of …

Continue reading

Brown v. Board of Ed.

The United States Constitution guarantees its inhabitants liberty and equal opportunity. Historically, however, these fundamental rights have not always been provided as pledged. The American system of education is one such example. From the earliest times in American history, the U.S. educational system mandated separate schools for children based solely on race. In many instances, the schools for African American children were substandard facilities with out-of-date textbooks and insufficient supplies. Court cases against segregated schools …

Continue reading

Thurgood & the Team

Attorneys representing the Plaintiffs in the landmark United States Supreme Court case of: Oliver L. Brown et al v. Board of Education of Topeka, Shawnee County, Kansas   Thurgood Marshall, Chief Counsel, NAACP/Legal Defense Fund (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993); One of America’s premier attorney’s, Thurgood Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, he was a great-grandson of a slave. Marshall at the age of 32 won a case before the U.S. Supreme Court. …

Continue reading

Robert L. Carter, Desegregation Architect

“In the United States, we make progress in two or three steps, then we step back, and blacks are more militant now and will not accept second-class citizenship as before.” – Robert L. Carter. The above quote was given to the New York Times in 2004 by one of America’s leading legal minds, practicing law in primarily human rights, civil rights an First Amendment cases. Robert L. Carter was a graduate from Columbia Law School, …

Continue reading

The Orangeburg Massacre

Before the unarmed student protesters were killed at Kent State in 1970,  also before two black men were killed at Jackson State in Mississippi days later, and before Dr. King’s assassination in April of 1968, there was South Carolina’s own version of excessive force by law enforcement and the killing of unarmed black youth. Idealistic protesters determined to make a point and highlight the segregation or more correctly, the banning of black people from a …

Continue reading