Challenge To Brown v Board of Education

Segregationists didn’t readily accept the 1954 unanimous Supreme Court ruling of Brown v Board of Education.  Southerners knew the decision would be a major disruption in their way of life, and limit the continued second class system for African-Americans. After the decision was announced, President Eisenhower lamented his choice of recently appointed Chief Justice Earl Warren (Oct 1953 – June 1969). Warren was the former Governor of California and vice presidential running mate in 1948. …

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Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. & Voting Rights

After the Civil War, three amendments were added to the United States Constitution to address the new reality for free blacks.  The 13th forbidding slavery, the 14th guaranteeing all people the same rights and privileges as everyone else and finally the 15th, the right to vote without regard to race or color or previous condition of servitude. The right to vote proved to be elusive for blacks especially in the South. States and local governments, …

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Brown v. Board of Ed.

The United States Constitution guarantees its inhabitants liberty and equal opportunity. Historically, however, these fundamental rights have not always been provided as pledged. The American system of education is one such example. From the earliest times in American history, the U.S. educational system mandated separate schools for children based solely on race. In many instances, the schools for African American children were substandard facilities with out-of-date textbooks and insufficient supplies. Court cases against segregated schools …

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Thurgood & the Team

Attorneys representing the Plaintiffs in the landmark United States Supreme Court case of: Oliver L. Brown et al v. Board of Education of Topeka, Shawnee County, Kansas   Thurgood Marshall, Chief Counsel, NAACP/Legal Defense Fund (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993); One of America’s premier attorney’s, Thurgood Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, he was a great-grandson of a slave. Marshall at the age of 32 won a case before the U.S. Supreme Court. …

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Robert L. Carter, Desegregation Architect

“In the United States, we make progress in two or three steps, then we step back, and blacks are more militant now and will not accept second-class citizenship as before.” – Robert L. Carter. The above quote was given to the New York Times in 2004 by one of America’s leading legal minds, practicing law in primarily human rights, civil rights an First Amendment cases. Robert L. Carter was a graduate from Columbia Law School, …

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Homer Plessy’s Legacy

Homer Plessy was an Octoroon, he was also a soldier in the war for African-American civil rights. That war began before the Civil War and before Homer Plessy challenged the segregation laws in Louisiana in 1892. Plessy, like Rosa Parks, was chosen to challenge the segregation laws in public transportation. He boarded a train and sat in a car that was reserved for whites, then ordered to leave the train but refused. Policemen arrived and …

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